Relating variance in feedback effectiveness to learning styles
Keywords:Feedback, Learning Styles, Feedback Effectiveness, Conceptual Model
Introduction: Students consider feedback to be an important aspect of good teaching, and meta-analyses confirm its influence on academic achievement. Anecdotal observations in pharmacy practice workshops at our institution suggested variance in students’ perceptions regarding the effectiveness of feedback.
Aim: To explore reasons students perceive the effectiveness of feedback differently from each other.
Methodology: As a conceptual paper, this article does not conform to the standard format of empirical research papers. Instead, it develops an argument by drawing on two established theories about the learning process, Vygotsky’s theory of Social Constructivism and Learning Style theory.
Results: The effectiveness of feedback may be influenced by factors other than quality. We propose an original model that links feedback preferences with learning styles, and make recommendations to pharmacy educators grounded in research findings.
Conclusion: The Matched-Mismatched Feedback Model may account for some of the variation in feedback effectiveness. Further empirical research to explore the validity of our model is recommended.
Austin, Z. (2004). Development and Validation of the Pharmacists' Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS). American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 68(2), Article 37.
Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and Classroom Learning. Assessment in Education, 5(1), 7-74.
Carless, D. (2006). Differing perceptions in the feedback process. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 219-233.
Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E. & Ecclestone, K. (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning. A systematic and critical review. London, U.K: Learning and Skills Research Centre (online). Available at: www.LSRC.ac.uk. Accessed 22nd August, 2016.
Cohen, V.B. (1985). A Reexamination of Feedback in Computer-Based Instruction: Implications for Instructional Design. Educational Technology, 25(1), 33-37.
Ferguson, P. (2011). Student perceptions of feedback in teacher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 36(1), 51-62.
Freeman, R. & Lewis, R. (1998). Planning and implementing assessment. London: Kogan Page Ltd.
Hall, M., Hanna, L.-A. & Quinn, S. (2012). Pharmacy Students’ Views of Faculty Feedback on Academic Performance. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76, (1), Article 5.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses in education. London, UK: Routledge.
Hattie, J. & Timperley, H. (2007). The Power of Feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112.
Higgins, R., Hartley, P. & Skelton, A. (2002). The conscientious consumer: Reconsidering the role of assessment feedback in student learning. Studies in Higher Education, 27(1), 53-64.
Higher Education Funding Council for England. (2015). Annual national student survey (online). Available at: http://www.hefce.ac. uk/lt/nss/results/2015/. Accessed 22nd August, 2016.
Hounsell, D., McCune, V., Hounsell, J. & Litjens, J. (2008). The quality of guidance and feedback to students. Higher Education Research and Development, 27(1), 55-67.
Kolb, D.A. (1981). Experiential Learning Theory and the Learning Style Inventory: A reply to Freedman and Stumpf. Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review, 6(2), 289-296.
Kolb, D.A., Boyatzis, R.E. & Mainemelis, C. (2000). Experiential Learning Theory: Previous Research and New Directions. In Perspectives on thinking, learning and cognitive styles (eds. R.J. Sternberg & L.-F. Zhang), Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 227-247.
Kolb, D.A. (2014). Experiential learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development, 2nd Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
Krause, K., Hartley, R., James, R., & McInnis, C. (2005). The First Year Experience in Australian Universities: Findings from Decade of National Studies. Centre for the Study of Higher Education, University of Melbourne (online). Available at: http://melbourne-cshe.unimelb. edu.au/research/experience/the-first-year-experience-in-australian-universities. Accessed 22nd August, 2016.
Nicol, D.J. & Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: a model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 199-218.
Perera, J., Lee, N., Win, K., Perera, J. & Wijesuriya, L. (2008). Formative feedback to students: the mismatch between faculty perceptions and student expectations. Medical Teacher, 30(4), 395-399.
Poulos, A. & Mahony, M.J. (2008), Effectiveness of feedback: the students’ perspective. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(2), 143-154.
Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to teach in higher education. New York, NY: RoutledgeFalmer.
Rowe, A.D. & Wood, L.N. (2008). Student Perceptions and Preferences for Feedback. Asian Social Science, 4(3), 78-88.
Sinclair, H.K. & Cleland, J.A. (2007). Undergraduate medical
students: who seeks formative feedback?. Medical Education, 41(6), 580-582.
Sonthisombat, P. (2008). Pharmacy Student and Preceptor Perceptions of Preceptor Teaching Behaviors. American Journal of
Pharmaceutical Education, 72(5), 110.
Stevenson, A. (Ed.). (2010). Oxford Dictionary of English. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Weaver, M.R. (2006). Do students value feedback? Student perceptions of tutors' written responses. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 31(3), 379-394.
Wojtas, O. (1998). Feedback? No, just give us the answers. Times Higher Education Supplement, 25 September (online). Available at: https://www.timeshigher education.com/news/feedback-no-just-give-us-the-answers/109162.article. Accessed 22nd August, 2016.