Content delivery models influence class preparation, study habits, and preferences

Authors

  • Jaekyu Shin University of California San Francisco
  • Tina P Brock Monash University, Melbourne

Keywords:

Flipped Classroom, Pharmacy Education, Lectures

Abstract

Objective: To examine the change in reported levels of class preparation, preferences, study habits and to assess correlation between these and changes in examination scores as students progressed through a course series with different content delivery methods.

Methods: The authors surveyed students regarding pre-class preparation, participation in in-class activities, preferences for class activities, and study habits. Spearman’s coefficient was used to assess a correlation between survey variables and examinations scores.

Results: Ninety-two students completed all surveys (response rate: 80.7%). The proportion of students reporting pre- class preparation and in-class participation was significantly higher in courses employing a flipped classroom model. About 90% indicated that the content delivery in the flipped model had a positive influence on their study habits. The level of class preparation and participation was not significantly correlated with a change in examination scores.

Conclusions: Content delivery models may be associated with reported level of preparation, study habits, and preferences. 

Author Biographies

Jaekyu Shin, University of California San Francisco

Associate Professor of Clinical Pharmacy - Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy

Tina P Brock, Monash University, Melbourne

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

References

Armour, C., Schneid, S.D. & Brandl, K. (2016). Writing on the board as students' preferred teaching modality in a physiology course. Advances in Physiology Education, 40(2), 229-233.

Bohaty, B.S., Redford, G.J. & Gadbury-Amyot, C.C. (2016). Flipping the Classroom: Assessment of Strategies to Promote Student-Centered, Self-Directed Learning in a Dental School Course in Pediatric Dentistry. Journal of Dental Education, 80(11), 1319-1327.

Freeman, S., Eddy, S.L., McDonough, M., Smith, M.K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H. & Wenderoth, M.P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United Staes of America, 111(23), 8410-8415.

Green, R.D. & Schlairet, M.C. (2017). Moving toward heutagogical learning: Illuminating undergraduate nursing students' experiences in a flipped classroom. Nurse Education Today, 49,122-128.

Gilboy, M.B., Heinerichs, S. & Pazzaglia, G. (2015). Enhancing student engagement using the flipped classroom. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 47(1), 109-114.

Gross, D., Pietri, E.S., Anderson, G., Moyano-Camihort, K. & Graham, M.J. (2015). Increased Preclass Preparation Underlies Student Outcome Improvement in the Flipped Classroom. CBE life Science Education, 14(4), ar36.

Islam, M.A., Khan, S.A. & Talukder. R.M. (2016). Status of physiology education in US Doctor of Pharmacy programs. Advances in Physiology Education, 40(4), 501-508.

Khanova, J., McLaughlin, J.E., Rhoney, D.H., Roth, M.T. & Harris, S. (2015a). Student Perceptions of a Flipped Pharmacotherapy Course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 79, 140.

Khanova, J., Roth, M.T., Rodgers, J.E. & McLaughlin, J.E. (2015b). Student experiences across multiple flipped courses in a single curriculum. Medical Education, 49(10), 1038-1048.

Koo, C.L., Demps, E.L., Farris, C., Bowman, J.D., Panahi, L. & Boyle, P. (2016). Impact of Flipped Classroom Design on Student Performance and Perceptions in a Pharmacotherapy Course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(2), 33.

McLaughlin, J.E., Roth, M.T., Glatt, D.M., Gharkholonarehe, N., Davidson, C.A., Griffin, L.M., Esserman, D.A. & Mumper, R.J. (2014). The flipped classroom: a course redesign to foster learning and engagement in a health professions school. Academic Medicine, 89(2), 236-243.

Park, S.E. & Howell, T.H. (2015). Implementation of a flipped classroom educational model in a predoctoral dental course. Journal of Dental Education, 79(5), 563-570.

Pierce, R. & Fox J. (2012). Vodcasts and active-learning exercises in a "flipped classroom" model of a renal pharmacotherapy module. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(9), 196.

Prober, C.G. & Khan, S. (2013). Medical education reimagined: a call to action. Academic Medicine, 88(10), 1407-1410.

Rotellar, C. & Cain, J. (2016). Research, Perspectives, and Recommendations on Implementing the Flipped Classroom. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(2), 34.

Tolks, D., Schafer, C., Raupach, T., Kruse, L., Sarikas, A., Gerhardt-Szep, S., Kllauer, G., Lemos, M., Fischer, M.R., Eichner, B., Sostmann, K. & Hege, I. (2016). An Introduction to the Inverted/Flipped Classroom Model in Education and Advanced Training in Medicine and in the Healthcare Professions. GMS Journal of Medical Education, 33(3), Doc46.

White, P.J., Larson, I., Styles, K., Yuriev, E., Evans, D.R., Rangachari, P.K., Short, J.L., Exintaris, B., Malone, D.T., Davie, B., Eise, N., McNamara, K. & Naidu, S. (2016). Adopting an active learning approach to teaching in a research-intensive higher education context transformed staff teaching attitudes and behaviours. Higher Education Research and Development, 35(3), 619-633.

White, P.J., Naidu, S., Yuriev, E., Short, J.L., McLaughlin, J.E. & Larson, I.C. (in press). Student engagement with a flipped classroom teaching design affects pharmacology examination performance in a manner dependent on question type. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education.

Wong, T.H., Ip, E.J., Lopes, I. & Rajagopalan, V. (2014). Pharmacy students' performance and perceptions in a flipped teaching pilot on cardiac arrhythmias. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 78(10), 185.

Published

28/11/2017

Issue

Section

Research Article