Deep approach to learning of pharmacy students: A multilevel analysis


  • Chamipa Phanudulkitti Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok
  • Karen B Farris University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
  • Pattrawadee Makmee Burapha University, Chonburi
  • Tanattha Kittisopee Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok


Deep Approach to Learning, Pharmacy Students, Innovative teaching, Student Workload, Task Orientation, Mastery Approach Goal


Introduction: A deep approach to learning (DAL) is a critical foundation for enhancing pharmacy students’ academic performance and professional outcomes. This study at two universities in Thailand examined student-level and course- level factors affecting pharmacy students’ DAL using the Biggs 3P model as a theoretical framework.

Methods: The measurement focused on DAL, achievement goal orientation, learning environment, appropriate workload, and assessment was sent to all 733 pharmacy students. Eight to twelve students were randomly selected to evaluate one of the 67 first semester courses available at two universities. Multilevel Structural Equation Modelling was used for analysis.

Results: There were 733 questionnaires returned of which 536 were used. Mastery approach goal (β=0.536**), performance approach goal (β=0.039**), innovation (β=0.409**), appropriate workload (β=0.349**), and task orientation (β=0.201**) had positive significant relationships with the DAL in pharmacy students.

Conclusion: Educators should increase innovative teaching approaches, optimise students’ workload, provide task orientation, and encourage students to be goal striving persons to facilitate deep learning. 

Author Biographies

Chamipa Phanudulkitti, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Karen B Farris, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

College of Pharmacy

Pattrawadee Makmee, Burapha University, Chonburi

College of Research Methodology and Cognitive Science

Tanattha Kittisopee, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences


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