Psychological health status and salivary IgA among pharmacy students in Iraq: validation of PSS-4 and WHO-5 well-being (Arabic version)


  • Shaymaa Abdalwahed Abdulameer Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Palestine Street, 10052, Baghdad
  • Watheq Mohammed Al-Jewari Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Palestine Street, 10052, Baghdad
  • Mohanad Naji Sahib Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Palestine Street, 10052, Baghdad


Pharmacy, PSS-4, Stress, Students, Well-being, WHO-5


Background: The psychological health status of pharmacy students will affect the whole academic and healthcare process.

Objective: The aims of this study were to validate perceived stress scale-4 (PSS-4, Arabic version) and World Health Organisation-5-well-being (WHO-5, Arabic version) scales and to assess salivary IgA among Iraqi pharmacy students in different stressful periods.

Method: A cohort pilot study with a convenient sample was carried out. The ‘forward–backward–forward’ translation method was used to translate the questionnaires from English to Arabic for further validation. Salivary IgA samples were taken on two different occasions.

Results: The results showed good validity and reliability for both PSS-4 and WHO-5. Less than half of the pharmacy students had a high level of stress and a low level of well-being at the second exam occasion. In addition, the results showed a significant higher value of salivary IgA measurements.

Conclusion: The psychological health status of pharmacy students needs to be improved and new strategies should be implemented to overcome this condition.


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Research Article