Teaching social sciences to undergraduate pharmacy students: An international survey †
Keywords:Pharmacy undergraduate curriculum, social and administrative pharmacy, social and behavioural sciences in pharmacy teaching, pharmacy course objectives, course evaluation, student assessment and faculty qualifications
Introduction: There is a dearth of recent research exploring the changing scope of the pharmacy undergraduate degree.
Methods: A standard web-based questionnaire was developed to collect data on social science teaching in Schools of Pharmacy. Snowball sampling was used. The questionnaire was ongoing and electronically analysed, assigning an average ranking to responses.
Results: There were 62 respondents representing Schools of Pharmacy from 17 countries. The social science disciplines and subjects are charted to show the frequency and year in which they are taught and open-ended responses regarding course objectives, course evaluation and student assessment are collated.
Discussion: Social/administrative pharmacy appears to have gained in acceptance within the pharmacy establishment showing an advancing degree of sophistication and rudimentary development of a theoretical base. However, there was a wide range of subjects, from scientific to behavioural, being taught under the banner of social pharmacy suggesting a lack of definitional agreement.
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. (2004). Educational outcomes. Alexandria VA: American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy.
American Council on Pharmaceutical Education. (1975). Accreditation manual 7th edition. Chicago.
Anderson, S. (2002). The state of the world’s pharmacy: A portrait of the pharmacy profession. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 16(4), 391–404.
Birenbaum, A. (1982). Reprofessionalization in pharmacy. Social Science and Medicine, 16, 871–878.
Edmunds, J., & Calnan, M. (2001). The reprofessionalisation of community pharmacy? An exploration of attitudes to extended roles for community pharmacists amongst pharmacists and general practitioners in the United Kingdom. Social Science and Medicine, 53, 943–955.
Hansen, E. H. (1982). Socialfarmaci—lægemiddelforbruget og lægemiddelbrugerne. (social pharmacy—medicine use and medicine users). Archiv for Pharmaci og Chemi, 89, 167–184.
Harding, G., Nettleton, S., & Taylor, K. (1990). Sociology for pharmacists: An introduction. London: Macmillan Academic and Professional Ltd.
Harding, G., & Taylor, K. (1993). Defining Social Pharmacy. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 2, 62–63.
Harding, G., Nettleton, S., & Taylor, K. (1994). Social pharmacy: Innovation and development. London: The Pharmaceutical Press.
Johnson, C. A., & Wertheimer, A. I. (1979). Behavioural pharmacy. American Journal of Pharmacy Education, 43, 257–261.
Leufkens, H. G., Schaefer, M., & Harris, M. F. (1993). Global survey of teaching pharmacy administration in colleges of pharmacy. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 57, 74–76.
Lindblad, A. K., Isacson, D., & Sorbom, D. (2000). Pharmacists’ attitudes towards the importance of compounding to their profession. Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 17(3), 143–150.
Manasse, H. R., & Rucker, T. D. (1984). Pharmacy administration and its relationship to education, research and practice. Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 2(3), 127–135.
Morgall, J. M., & Almarsdottir, A. B. (1999). No struggle no strength: How pharmacists lost their monopoly. Social Science and Medicine, 48, 1247–1258.
Morgall Traulsen, J. M., & Bissell, P. (2004). Theories of professions and the pharmacist. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 2(2), 107–114. Mount, J. (1994). What is Pharmacy Practice Research? International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 3(1), 1–2.
Nettleton, S. (1995). The Sociology of Health and Illness. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.
Nuffield Committee of Inquiry into Pharmacy. (1986). Pharmacy: A report to the Nuffield foundation. London: Nuffield Foundation.
Ryan, K., & Bissell, P. (2004). What is Pharmacy Practice? What is Social Pharmacy? What is the Difference Between the Two?, Paper presented at the 13th International Social Pharmacy Workshop, Exploring Theoretical and Cultural Perspectives, Malta.
Schaefer, M., Leufkens, H. G. M., & Harris, M. F. (1992). The teaching of social pharmacy/pharmacy administration in colleges of pharmacy with special regard to the situation in Germany. Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 9(4), 141–148.
Study Commission on Pharmacy. (1975). Pharmacists for the future. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press.
Taylor, K., Nettleton, S., & Harding, G. (2003). Sociology for pharmacists: An introduction, 2nd edition. London: Taylor and Francis.
Working Party on Social and Behavioural Science. (1989). London: Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.