REVIEW ARTICLE: The effect of classroom lectures on student pharmacists’ knowledge, attitude and practice of breast self-examination
Keywords:Breast Self-examination, Knowledge, Pharmacy Students, Practice, Public Health
Background: Women advised about Breast Self-Examination (BSE) by health care professionals have greater knowledge, confidence and are more likely to practice it routinely. Many pharmacy organizations and indeed the World Health Organization (WHO) support the pharmacists’ role in public health.
Background: Women advised about breast self-examination (BSE) by healthcare professionals have greater knowledge, confidence and are more likely to practice it routinely. Many pharmacy organisations and indeed the World Health Organisation (WHO) support the pharmacists’ role in public health.
Objective: This study aimed to assess the effect of clinical lectures on breast cancer on knowledge, attitude and practice of BSE among student pharmacists.
Methods: This study was a descriptive pre/post-type survey. Final year students of the largest pharmacy faculty in Nigeria participated in the study. A 17-item pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and practices of BSE was given to each participant before clinical lectures (including a case review) on breast cancer. Six weeks after the lecture, the students were given the same questionnaire. Mean differences of survey item scores were analysed (paired samplet-test for pre- and post-test score) using SPSS.
Results: A total of 79 females were sampled, response rates were 91.4% and 75.95% for the pre- and post-surveys respectively. No statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found between the mean knowledge (2.00±0.93 and 1.92±0.65), mean attitude (19.29±2.32 and 19.48±2.02) and mean practice scores (1.53±1.08 and 1.67±1.03) in the pre- and post- samples of the study.
Conclusion: Health promotion techniques such as BSE should be explicitly taught and incorporated into pharmacy education.
Adamu, H., Shuaibu, K. & Adamu, A.N. (2016). Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Breast Self Examination among Female Students of a Tertiary Institution in Sokoto, North-West Nigeria. Annals of International medical and Dental Research, 2(4), 74-79 doi:10.21276/aimdr.2016.2.4.23
Ajekigbe, A.T. (1991). Fear of mastectomy: The most common factor responsible for late presentation of carcinoma of the breast in Nigeria. Clinical Oncology, 3(2), 78-80. doi:10.1016/S0936-6555(05)81167-7
Alwan, N.A.S., Al-Diwan, J.K.A., Al-Attar, W.M. & Eliessa, R.A. (2012). Knowledge, attitude & practice towards breast cancer & breast self examination in Kirkuk University, Iraq. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, 1(4), 308–311. doi:10.1016/S2305-0500(13)60098-6.
American Cancer Society. (2016). Cancer Facts & Figures 2016, American Cancer Society. doi: 10.1177/0300985809 357753
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (2008). ASHP Statement on the Role of Health-System Pharmacists in Public Health. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 65(5), 462–467. doi:10.2146/ ajhp070399
Boutayeb, A. (2006). The double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 100(3), 191-199. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2005. 07.021
Boutayeb, A. & Boutayeb, S. (2005). The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. International Journal for Equity in Health, 4(2). doi:10.1186/1475-9276-4-2
Brinton, L. A. Figueroa, J.D., Awuah, B., Yarney, J., Wiafe, S., Wood, S.N., Ansong, D., Nyarko, K., Wiafe-Addai. B. & Clegg-Lamptey, J.N. (2014). Breast cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities for prevention. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 144(3), 467-478. doi:10.1007/s10549-014-2868-z.
Coleman, M.P., Quaresma, M., Berrino, F., Lutz, J.M., De Angelis, R., Capocaccia, R., Baili, P., Rachet, B., Gatta, G., Hakulinen, T., Micheli, A., Sant, M., Weir, H.K., Elwood, J.M., Tsukuma, H., Koifman, S., E Silva, G.A., Francisci, S., Santaquilani, M., Verdecchia, A., Storm, H.H., Youngm J.L. & CONCORD Working Group. (2008). Cancer survival in five continents: A worldwide population-based study (CONCORD). The Lancet Oncology, 9(8) doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70179-7
El Hajj, M.S. & Hamid, Y. (2013). Breast cancer health promotion in Qatar: A survey of community pharmacists’ interests and needs. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 35(3), 376-85. doi: 10.1007/s11096- 010-9449-y
Erku, D.A. & Mersha, A.G. (2017). Involvement of community pharmacists in public health priorities: A multi-center descriptive survey in Ethiopia. PLoS ONE, 12(7). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0180943
Espina, C., McKenzie, F. & dos-Santos-Silva, I. (2017). Delayed presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer in African women: a systematic review. Annals of Epidemiology, 27(10), 659-671. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem. 2017.09.007
Ezeome, E.R. (2010). Delays in presentation and treatment of breast cancer in Enugu, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 13(3), 311-316
Ferlay, J., Shin, H.R., Bray, F., Forman, D., Mathers, C. & Parkin, D.M. (2010). Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. International Journal of Cancer, 127(12), 2893–2917. doi:10.1002/ijc.25516
Giles, J.T., Kennedy, D.T., Dunn, E.C., Wallace, W.L., Meadows, S.L. & Cafiero, A.C. (2001). Results of a community pharmacy-based breast cancer risk-assessment and education program. Pharmacotherapy, 21(2), 243-253. doi:10.1592/phco.22.214.171.124100
Gwarzo, U., Sabitu, K. & Idris, S. (2009). Knowledge and practice of breast-self examination among female undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Northwestern Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine, 8(1), 55-58. doi:10.4103/1596-3519.55766
Ibrahim, N.A. & Oludara, M.A. (2012). Socio- demographic factors and reasons associated with delay in breast cancer presentation: A study in Nigerian women. Breast, 21(3), 416-18. doi:10.1016/j.breast.2012.02.006
Ikechukwu, C., Omaka-Amari, Nnenna, L., Nwimo, I.O., & Onwunaka, C. (2015). Breast Cancer Knowledge among Women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Implication for Women Breast Cancer Education. Journal of Health Education Research & Development, 3(2). doi:10.4172/ 2380-5439.1000129.
Irurhe K., Olowoyeye, A., Arogundade, A., Bassey, B. & Onajole, T. (2009). Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Breast Self-Examination Among Female Medical Students In The University Of Lagos. The Internet Journal of Health, 12(1). Available at: http:// search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cin 20&AN=2011266410&site=ehost-live
Kanavos, P. (2006). The rising burden of cancer in the developing world. Annals of Oncology, 17(Suppl. 8), 15-23. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdl983
Nwagbo D.F & Akpala C.O. (1996). Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among women in Enugu urban, Eastern Nigeria. J Coll Med., 1, 34–36
Okobia, M.N., Bunker, C., Okonofua, F. & Osime, U. (2006). Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer: A cross-sectional study. World Journal of Surgical Oncology, 4(11). doi:10.1186/1477-7819-4-11
Okolie, U.V. (2012). Breast self examination among female undergraduates in Enugu, Southeast, Nigeria. International Journal of Nursing and Midwifery, 4(1),1-7 doi:10.5897/IJNM11.038
Petro-Nustus, W. & Mikhail, B.I. (2002). Factors associated with breast self-examination among Jordanian women. Public Health Nursing, 19(4). doi:10.1046/j.1525-1446.2002.19406.x
Secginli, S. & Nahcivan, N.O. (2006). Factors associated with breast cancer screening behaviours in a sample of Turkish women: A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43(2), 161-171. doi:10.1016 j.ijnurstu.2005.02.004.
WHO [World Health Organisation]. (1998). The role of the pharmacist in self-care and self-medication. Report of the 4th WHO Consultive Group on the Role of the Pharmacist. doi:WHO/DAP/98.13.