Impact of an educational intervention on the behavioural pharmaceutical care scale
Keywords:Educational intervention, pharmaceutical care scale, pharmacy education, Nigeria
Objective: To describe and evaluate an educational intervention that is designed to enable pharmacists in a Nigerian teaching hospital to provide pharmaceutical care (PC) and to assess the impact of the intervention on an existing behavioural PC scale. Special attention was paid to develop a documentation format.
Method: A pharmaceutical educational intervention was undertaken. The impact of the intervention on the pharmacists’ potential to deliver PC was quantitatively evaluated using a standard behavioural PC scale.
Results: There were significant differences between self-reported knowledge (t 1⁄4 3.212; p 1⁄4 0.003), attitudes (t 1⁄4 2.868; p 1⁄4 0.008) and self-efficacy (t 1⁄4 2.537; p 1⁄4 0.016) (pre-intervention and post-intervention).
Conclusion: The educational intervention enhanced the pharmacists’ potential to deliver PC and also generated two systems of documenting PC activities
Chisholm, M. A., & Wade, W. E. (1999). Factors influencing students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. American Journal of Health-Systems Pharmacists, 56, 2330–2335.
FIP. (1998). Policy statement on good pharmacy education practice.
Hepler, C. D., & Strand, L. M. (1990). Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 47, 533–543.
Kamei, M., Teshima, K., & Nakamura, T. (2000). Comparative analysis of pharmacy services based on newly developed evaluation index. Yakugaku Zasshi, 120(11), 1185–1191.
Kassam, R., Farris, K. B., Burback, L., Volume, C. I., Cox, C. E., & Cave, E. (2001). Pharmaceutical care research and education project: Pharmacists’ interventions. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 41, 401–410.
Krueger, R. A. (1994). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. 2nd ed Thousand oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.
May, J. R. (1993). Barriers to pharmaceutical care in the acute care setting. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 50, 1608 – 1611.
McDonough, R. P. (1996). Interventions to improve patient pharmaceutical care outcomes. Journal of the American Pharma- ceutical Association, 536, 453–466.
Morgan, D. L., & Krueger, R. A. (1993). When to use focus group and why. In D. L. Morgan (Ed.), Successful focus groups: Advancing the state of the art (pp. 3–19). Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications.
Odedina, F. T., & Segal, R. (1996). Pharmaceutical care behavior scale. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacists, 53, 855 – 865.
Odedina, F. T., Segal, R., Hepler, C. D., Lipowski, E., & Kimberlin, C. (1996). Changing pharmacists practice pattern: Pharmacists’ implementation of pharmaceutical care. Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 13, 74–88.
Oparah, A. C., & Enato, E. F. O. (2003). Pharmaceutical care expectations of patients in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 20(6), 219–224.
Raisch, D. W. (1993). Barriers to providing cognitive services. American Pharmacy NS, 33(12), 54–58.
Reutzel, T. J., DeFalco, P. G., Hogan, M., & Kazerooni, P. V. (1999). Evaluation of a pharmaceutical care education series for chain pharmacists using the focus group method. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 39, 226–234.
Rovers, J. P., Currie, J. D., Hagel, H. P., McDonough, R. P., & Sobotka, J. L. ISBN 091733090017 (1998). A practical guide to pharmaceutical care. Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association.
Strand, L. M., Cipolle, R. J., Morley, P. C., & Perrier, D. G. (1991). Levels of pharmaceutical care: A needs-based approach. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 48, 547–550.
Van Mil, J. W. F., De Boer, W. O., & Tromp, T. F. J. (2001). European barriers to the implementation of pharmaceutical care. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 9, 163–168.
Venkataraman, K., Madhavan, S., & Bone, P. (1997). Barriers and facilitators to pharmaceutical care in rural community practice. Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 14, 208 – 219.
Volume, C. I., Farris, K. B., Kassam, R., Cox, C. E., & Cave, A. (2001). Pharmaceutical care research and education project: Patient outcomes. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 41, 411–420.